1. What is IE ?
1.1. IE is the abbreviation of Industrial Engineering.
1.2. IE is a science to design, improve and set the integrated system of personnel, material, equipment, sgarmentsce and information.
1.3. The mission of IE is to raise the efficiency, lower the cost and improve quality.
2. The present situation of IE spreading in garments company :
2.1. We have set up IE department, the organization contains IE officer, assistant and clerk. Besides the Adm. Center and Sample Room have their IE staffs, there are IE staffs stationed in 2 factories to render service.
2.2. Main function of Center IE:
· Instruct, supervise and cooperate with factory IE.
· Analyses and appraises the concerned data of each factory, and report to management.
2.3. Main function of Sample Room IE:
· Confirm the SAM of all samples and bulk.
2.4. Main function of Factory IE:
· Determine the operation time of each process and unit price.
· Efficiency analysis and prepare the related report forms.
· Working method studies, working flow improvement, workshop layout design, and render variety of suggestion contributed to raise efficiency and lower cost.
· Execute the job assigned by the factory manager.
Determination of SAM
SAM is the abbreviation of Standard Allowed Minutes, which means the standard time of finishing an operation in appropriate condition, with the right operation method, in the normal speed by a common skilled worker.
1. Determination the SAM of each process
(1) Before testing the SAM, IE should find out the efficiency performance of the tested operator, the requested operation procedure of the tested process, and the familiarization degree of the tested operator to the process.
(2) Watch if the operator is operating in normal state of mind.
(3) Test the time and get the accurate data:
A. The use of stopwatch
B. Record with a pen and paper.
C. Testing times depends on the actual situation (usually need 12 times).
D. Adjust the record data, for example:
Test the time of joint shoulder of 001021, the testing motion unit all defined as from getting the panel and joint shoulder on linking dial, till finishing joint shoulder and put down the panels. Totally tested for 12 times. The following is the test time: Eliminate the maximum and the minimum value, i.e. the 1st and the 8th, average the rested data, the result is 1.942. This value can not be regarded as the standard time, because the tested operator is only one of the operators, his practiced degree should evaluated according to the actual situation. In addition, the operator will be affected due to fatigue, machine delay, and so on. Therefore, allowance should be given (the allowance please refer to The Sweater Operation Time Allowance defined by garments company).
Thus, we have to adjust the value of 1.942, in which objective evaluation is the most important. It is also an important aspect to appraise the ability of IE.
If the efficiency of tested operator is evaluated as 80%, and the allowance is 23% as defined, according to the formula: SAM = Average minutes of each piece * ( 1+ allowance) * efficiency = 1.911.
The above example shows how to get SAM. It requests IE to go deep into the realities, understand the operation details of each process, analyse the rationality, study the efficiency performance of the tested operator, and stand at an objective and impartial attitude.
In fact, since sweaters have various styles, and the period of the workers adapting to the process is different, only test the data once is hard to ensure the accuracy. IE should track and review the testing data, such as analyses the efficiency report, inquiry the supervisor and worker, test at the initial period, in-line period and final period. IE should also select different operators to test and compare, so as to minimize the test error.
(4) The function of SAM in garments company:
- Provide information for rationally arrange the production plan;
- Calculate production cost, analysis and evaluate the profit and loss of factory.
- Evaluate the production ability of factory.
- The important basis to determine the unit price.
- Efficiency statistics for factory.
Determination of Unit Price
Sweaters vary in styles, the processes are very complicated, and almost all of the processes actualize piece rate wage. In addition, we have 2 factories. Therefore, how to determine the unit prices of each process, ensure the workers have reasonable income and the 2 factories have a uniform unit price, is the important mission of factory IE.
Reasonable unit price has great significance to ensure the stable worker headcount, raise the initiative of the worker, and control the cost. Confused unit price will bring a lot of difficulty to production management, or even make the factory in a mess, and the cost is out of control. IE is a relative independent department, which have no direct connection with the 1st line workers, so that they can stand at an impartial view. They provide unit price of each process to factory manager through strict time study, avoiding evaluating by experience, thus act a important role for factory to confirm a reasonable unit price and cost control.
How to get unit price from SAM? Let’s use the above joint shoulder process ( SAM: 1.911 minutes) as an example, the formula is as the following:
The unit price per dozen = (SAM * 12 * basis price of this process) / normal working minutes per day
The normal working minutes of garments company is 510 minutes everyday, and we have regulated the basis price of each process according to the actual situation. The basis price of joint shoulder is RMB40.00 (detailed please refer to the controlled Copy “Pre-Finishing and Post-Finishing Basis Price for Each Process), thus reached the unit price per dozen is RMB1.80.
If only IE go deep into the factories, understand the operation details of all processes, carefully perform time study, enhance the communication, can they ensure the unit price is reasonable. This is also the basic requirement to IE.
Efficiency Statistics and its Use in Garments Company
What is efficiency? How it is calculated? What is the use of efficiency? These are the basic points for us to understand efficiency.
Efficiency is the ratio of output and investment. The more the output, the less the investment, the ratio will higher, and the efficiency will be higher.
The formula to calculate efficiency:
Own Work Efficiency = Own Work Finishing SAM / Own Work Attendance Time * 100%
Own Work Attendance Time = Total work attendance time (attendance record time) - The time of transferring to take other piece payment work - The time of transferring to take other time payment work - Stop work time / Machine breakdown time / Waiting for work time
Own Work Finishing SAM = Output * SAM.
The time of transferring to take other piece payment work means that, for example, the time of a linker transferred to finish the work except for linking (such as handstitching, lighting and mending etc.)
The time of transferring to take other time payment work means that, for example, the time of a mending worker transferred to clean the workshop or mend major defects garment ( can not count by piece)
The use of efficiency:
· To measure the production profit.
· To determine the income of the worker.
· Production plan.
· To measure profit or loss.
How to Raise Efficiency
Time study, efficiency performance, only provided a measurement standard to efficiency. How to raise efficiency is the main mission of IE.
According to the above mentioned formula of efficiency, the following factors will affect efficiency:
· Wrong attendance record.
· Wrong transferring to take other piece payment work time (no record, overstates or understates).
· Do not hand out the product of that day.
· Overstate the time of transferring to take other time payment work.
· Wrong statistics.
Seriously record the time of transferring to take other piece or time payment work, stop work time, machine breakdown time is very important to the accuracy of efficiency. Otherwise, it will provide wrong information in report.
Please see the following description and select the right answer:
A linker, attendance time is 510 min, in which, stick ticket 5 min, waiting for work 30 min, machine breakdown 10 min, rework due to bad quality 1 hgarments, joint collar 48 pcs, the SAM is 5 min each, removing the finishing yarn 3 hgarmentss. Then the own work efficiency calculating formula should be:
A. Own Work Efficiency =(48*5)/(510-5-30-10-60)*100%
B. Own Work Efficiency =(48*5)/(510-30-10-180)*100%
C. Own Work Efficiency =(48*5)/(510-30-10-60-180)*100%
D. Own Work Efficiency =(48*5)/(510-30-10)*100%
2. Time study and innovation:
IE is a department to combine technology and management to an organic whole, and look for the approach to improve efficiency. One of the approaches to improve efficiency is to perform method study, that is, how to decrease or save the operation time so as to raise the efficiency.
(1) Manufacturing Engineering analysis:
(i) To find out if the engineering or assembly line arrangement, order, division, combination is appropriate or not.
(ii) To find out if have unnecessary delay.
(iii) To find out if the transportation route, method or times and the load is suitbale.
(iv) To find out if the transportation distance can be shortened.
(v) To find out if there is waiting time, can be shortened or not.
(vi) To find out if can be processing or checking at the same time.
(vii) To find out quality variation and quality condition.
(viii) To find out scrapping or re-working.
(ix) To find out alteration quality cost.
(x) To find out the complaint from workshop.
The above cause is according to save labor principle working simplify and engineering survey analysis.
Operation order and method;
Finally, definite the flow line if need to re-arrange and adjust the manufacturing process.
(2) Motion analysis
Motion analysis is analyze a combined motion consist of basic motions, i.e. resolve the operator’s all motions, including two eyes, two hands and two feet, and analyze, research, remove the unnecessary motion, and make the necessary motion to efficient, not liable to tired and the most economic motion.
Motion analysis can be classified as the following 3 kinds:
1st kind: basic motion, including move, hold, put down the object etc.
2nd kind: look, check, consider, etc.
3rd kind: avoidable or inevitably waiting, interval.
The motion study based on the improvement of operation method, firstly, must decrease the 3rd and the 2nd factor, and further consider the 1st factor, find out a reasonable order and combination, so as to act in short time and then raise efficiency.
Method Study and Innovation
Never self-satisfaction, always innovation, not confined to the present method is the proper consciousness of IE. Emphasize on the whole working system, perform work flow analysis, and then deeply solve the key sectional problem, analyze the operation, and finally, completely solve the problem, and further optimize the whole system.
1. Work flow analysis
Properly arrange the factory, make the work flow smoothly.
2. Operation analysis
For example, how to properly operate the machines.
3. Motion analysis
For example, improve the standard working method, decrease the motion steps or motion way on condition that assuring quality.
The above briefly shows the development of IE in garments factory, detailed method please refer to the book of Industrial Engineering Basis edited by Fan Zhong Zhi.
Sweater industry has the specialties of multi process, quantity and consuming large amount of time. Proper arrangement of factory will smooth the work flow, comfort the environment, simplify the working procedure, thus have important signification to raise efficiency and decrease the cost.
With the development and change in production, IE should often ask himself: if the present factory arrangement is in best condition? Regarding this, IE may consider from the following aspect:
1. If the transportation route is the shortest after the product finished?
2. If the transportation route and factory arrangement are contradictory, need find out the best solution.
3. If flow process is feasible, so as to decrease the transportation time within a department.
4. If the factory arrangement is beautiful enough?
5. If the factory arrangement can make the worker feel comfortable, such as if the space is big enough, if the noise disturb their operation, if the light is enough, and the circulation of air is in good condition, and etc.
6. Manpower transportation change to handcart transportation.
7. Expansion of scale.
In a word, factory arrangement should consider from the overall, and look for a best scheme
One of the important responsibility of IE is to provide statistic figure to management, including efficiency, cost and quality of 2 factories. The following is the brief introduction, detailed please refer to the Working Instruction of IE.
1. Wage Distribution Situation and Analysis of All Departments in Finishing Factory is made according to the payroll. It is mainly prepared by piece payment and time payment respectively, in which including total attendance time, average attendance time per day and worker, piece payment wage, time payment wage, non-own work wage and supplement wage and its percentage. The purpose of this report is to analyze the wage situation of each department, and measure the income level of workers.
2. Monthly Summary of Non-own Work Time and Reason is counted up the time of the piece payment transferring to time payment non-own work according to the Non-own Work record. The purpose of this report is analyze all of the reasons and its percentage, and the ratio of non-own work occupy the attendance time of this month, so as to control cost.
3. Monthly Summary of Light checking workers’ Quality and Efficiency, Monthly Summary of Checking Workers’ quality and Efficiency of Checking Center, Monthly Summary of Ironing Workers’ quality and Efficiency are prepared according to the Daily worker efficiency report, monthly summary of light checking worker quality, monthly summary of checking worker quality, monthly summary of ironing worker quality. The purpose of this report is to reflect the quality and efficiency of workers of the main departments.
4. Monthly Efficiency Analysis of All Factories, refer to the attachment.
The above report must reflect to factory managers, and assist factory managers to analyze and solve the abnormal phenomenon on monthly meeting.
Engr. Kh. Mashiur Rahman Email: firstname.lastname@example.org