House Keeping, Sanitation
In order to ensure a clean and healthy work environment various factors like proper house keeping, sanitation facility and wastewater emission are also to be taken in to consideration. In the previous chapter, the various hazards, their causes & consequences, and the preventive measures are discussed, while in this chapter additional preventive measures which mainly concentrates on the cleanliness and hygiene issues are highlighted.
To ensure proper house keeping in different units of BTD, the Administration Department of concerned unit looks after the following issues :
· Overall Cleanliness,
· Fabrication, painting, etc.
· Ventilation and temperature control
· Dust and fume control
· Artificial humidification
· Overcrowding control
· Supply of drinking Water
· Provide adequate number of latrines and urinals
· Provide adequate number of Spittoons, dustbins, etc.
· Proper material handling and storage.
· Availability of cleaning and maintenance materials, e.g. detergents, soaps, lubricants, wipers, cloths, etc.
All units under BTD shall follow the rules and regulations regarding the following issues as explained in the Chapter III of Factories Act, 1965. The issues are :
Cleaning Equipment Use
Normally the following types of equipment are used for cleaning purpose :
1) Vacuum cleaner pipe: This is used to remove flies from the machine and the floor. The pipes are fabricated from BTD workshop with nozzle at the end and wrapped with adhesive tapes to increase its life. Before starting the machine check that the pipes are connected to vacuum point mounted on the wall and the line is clean. Since this is a suction type device there is no chance of flies dropping on to the packages. Any suction type device is better than blowing type device.
2) Pushing brush: This is used to clean fly, fluff accumulated on the warping floor. The floor should be cleaned continuously.
3) Jute brush: Sometime fly gets stuck to the floor. Wet jute brush is used to remove such fly.
4) Cloth: This is used to manually clean the machine and machine parts. Care should be taken so that cloth does not get trapped in the moving parts. For warping machine, only head-stock can be cleaned with cloth during running.
5) Moveable vacuum cleaner: This machine is not currently in use. It will be useful to clean inaccessible parts and corners.
6) Cleaning gun: This is a fluff collector. It can be used to collect fluff while the machine is running.
3.1.4 House Keeping Guidelines
According to the Factories Act, 1965, every factory shall be kept clean and free from effluvia arising from any drain privy or other nuisance, and in particular :
(a) Accumulation of dirt and refuge shall be moved daily by seeping or by any other effective method from the floors and benches of workrooms and from staircases and passages and disposed of in a suitable manner,
(b) The floor of every work-room shall be cleaned at least once in every week by washing, using disinfectant where necessary or by some other effective method,
(c) Where the floor is liable to become wet in the course of any manufacturing process to such extent as is capable of being drained, effective means of drainage shall be provided and maintained,
(d) All inside walls and partitions, all ceilings, or tops of rooms and walls, side and tops or passages and staircases shall--
· where they are painted or varnished, be repainted or re-varnished at least once in every five years,
· where they are painted or varnished and have smooth imperious surfaces, be cleaned at least once in every fourteenth months by such methods as may be prescribed,
· In any other case, be kept white-washed or colour-washed and the white-washing or colour-washing shall be carried out at least once in every fourteen months, and
(e) The dates on which the processes required by clause (d) are carried out shall be entered in the prescribed register.
Machine & Area Cleaning
For specific machine and area cleaning process refer to the area specific operational specifications
In order to ensure Industrial Housekeeping following measures are taken:
· Most of the Industrial Housekeeping codes deals with foreseeable risks in arising in particular places and in performing particular jobs, but accidents may happen at any time in any part of the factory. Many such accidents can be prevented by always keeping things properly and doing things in an orderly fashion.
· If asbestos-containing panels, cladding or insulation work loose or are damaged in the course of time, pending proper repair, the exposed edges or surfaces are protected by a suitable coating or covering to prevent asbestos fibres being released and dispersed in the air.
· Flickering lights usually indicate faults in wiring or fittings, which may cause electric shock or fibres. They are investigated and repaired by a competent person. Failed light bulbs are replaced as soon as possible.
· Instruction plates, notices and operating indicators are kept clean and legible.
· Doors whether open or closed are properly secured; they should not be left swinging.
· Litter may present a fire risk or cause slips or falls, but in any case may conceal some other hazard.
· Tidiness not only makes hidden defects apparent but ensures that articles are in their proper place to be found as required.
· In carrying out any task, possible risks to other persons are considered; for example, if water from a careless hosing-down of the deck enters a gallery through an open light or scuttle, it may be most dangerous to gallery staff.
· Employees are encouraged to take care of their personal matters. Dangerous articles such as razor blades and lighted cigarette ends should be disposed of safely.
· Many aerosols have volatile and inflammable contents. They should never be used or replaced near naked flames or other heat source even when "empty". Empty canisters are properly disposed of.
· Some fumigating or insecticide sprays contain ingredients which though perhaps in themselves harmless to human beings, may be decomposed when heated,. Smoking may be dangerous in sprayed atmosphere while the spray persists. Smoking is strictly prohibited in the factory premises.
Sanitation in respect to an industrial establishment means:
- arranging of safe drinking water
- maintaining hygienic atmosphere in the canteen and elsewhere
- arranging adequate numbers of Latrines and Urinals
- general cleaning of plants by effective methods.
- arranging of sufficient spaces with adequate lighting and ventilation at the workplace.
- arranging of housing with essential community amenities.
In these regards, the company shall follow the rules relation to “Health and Hygiene” mentioned in the Factories Act 1965.
Causes & Consequences
The causes for poor sanitation may be as follows :
· Poor house keeping,
· Inadequate numbers of Latrines and Urinals,
· Non-availability of cleaning materials, e.g. detergents, soaps, etc.,
· Non-availability of cleaning equipment, e.g. brooms, cloths, etc
The consequences of poor sanitation can be enlisted as follows :
· Poor house keeping,
· Health hazards, etc.
Sanitary facilities are well equipped with supplies (e.g. protective creams) and employees are encouraged to wash frequently, particularly those exposed to dust chemicals or pathogens. Ventilation systems are provided to control work area temperatures and humidity. Personnel required to work in areas of high temperature and/or high humidity are allowed to take frequent breaks away form these areas. Pre-employment and periodic medical examinations are conducted for all personnel, and specific surveillance programs instituted for personnel potentially exposed to toxic or radioactive.
Following preventive measures are adopted in order to provide proper sanitation facility for the workers :
- Ensure continuos and adequate water supply
- Maintain hygienic atmosphere in the factory premises
- Arranging adequate numbers of Spittoons, Latrines and Urinals
- Ensure proper maintenance and cleaning of plants by effective methods as per schedule.
- Arrange sufficient spaces with adequate lighting and ventilation at the workplace. Mark the aisles and passages for smooth movement and transportation.
- Arrange housing with essential community amenities.
- Provide all necessary cleaning equipment, e.g. soap, detergent, etc.
Industrial effluent generated from different processes, are treated with various chemicals to remove or neutralise the toxic materials present in it, before discharging it to surface or ground waters.
Residues and sludges often contain toxic organic chemicals and metals. These should be properly managed, with final disposal in an approved secure landfill.
The emission requirements given here can be consistently achieved by well-designed, well-operated and well-maintained pollution control systems.
The following reduction levels should be achieved :
A common approach to treatment of wastewaters is settling to remove suspended solids, followed by biological treatment. Physical –chemical treatment is also practised. In this treatment, careful control of pH followed by addition of alum as a coagulant before settling can achieve good first –stage treatment. If further treatment to reduce BOD5 is required, it can be provided in oxidation ponds if space permits (or another aerobic process, with up to 95 percent removal of BOD5). Average effluent level of 30 to 50 mg/1 BOD5 will be obtained. Anaerobic treatment systems are not widely used for textile wastes.
The effluent should result in a temperature increase of not more than 30C at the edge of the zone where initial mixing and dilution take place. Where the zone is not defined, use 100 meters from the point of discharge.
Our Treatment process is based on balancing, pH correction, flocculation, dissolved air flotation, aeration, settling, colour removal system and multimedia filter.
The effluent is treated to achieve the guidelines allowing discharge of the treated effluent to surface or ground waters as laid down by the World Bank and Department of Environment, Bangladesh.
Typical Characteristics of Treated Effluent
The following effluent guidelines are for ultimate discharge directly to surface water.
Following safety equipment are available in ETP area to ensure personnel safety :
a) Dress for chemical handling for every staff.
b) Gloves, boots and eye-protective safety goggles are available for all types of corrosive liquid chemicals handling.
c) Sufficient water supply in all point of chemical dosing areas.
d) Mask for inhalation protection.
e) Crow bar for electrocution
f) Fire extinguishers for fires, accident.
g) Emergency Evacuation Plan for any sort of emergency.
h) First Aid Box to be used in case of any accident.
Prior to entry and occupancy, all confined spaces (e.g. tanks, sumps, vessels, sewers, excavations) are tested for the presence of toxic flammable and explosive gases or vapors, and for the lack of oxygen. Adequate ventilation are provided before entry and during occupancy of these spaces. Personnel must use air-supplied respirators when working in confined spaces, which may become contaminated or deficient in oxygen during period of occupancy. Observers / assistants are stationed outside of confined spaces to provide emergency assistance, if necessary, to personnel working inside these areas.
Besides these above arrangement, the Health Status of all ETP staffs are monitored in every month. The ETP staffs are also provided with basic knowledge on poisonous chemicals and corrosive chemical handling procedures.
Engr. Kh. Mashiur Rahman Email: firstname.lastname@example.org