Practical Process of RMG Industry

Health & Safety Facilities for Workers

Health & Safety Facilities for Workers

Health & Safety Facilities


In this chapter, various health and medication facilities available for the DBL personnel are discussed. However these facilities are subject to change or modification based on the management's decision.
4.1 Health & Hygiene Guidelines

Health & Hygiene


§ It is the employee's responsibility to look after his own health and fitness. High standards of personal cleanliness and hygiene should be maintained.

§ On adequate sleep and an avoidance of excess of rich food, alcohol and tobacco.

§ Any simple infection can easily be spread from one person to others. Thus preventive measures, as well as easily effective treatment, are essential.

§ Cuts and abrasions should be cleansed at once and given first aid treatment as necessary to protect against infection.

§ Many serious infections can be guarded against by inoculation and vaccination. These should be kept up to date as necessary to meet the requirements of the international organisations.

§ Prolonged exposure to mineral oils cause dermatitis and skin cancer. All traces of oil should be thoroughly washed from the skin but hydrocarbon solvents should be avoided. Working clothes should be laundered frequently. Oil-soaked rags should not be put in pockets.

§ Rats and other rodents may be carriers of infection and should never be handled, dead or alive, with bare hands.

§ Inadvertent exposure to or contact with toxic chemicals or other harmful substances should be reported immediately and the appropriate remedial action taken.

§ Prolonged exposure to synthetic domestic cleaners and detergents is a potential cause of alkali (de-fatting) dermatitis. Cotton-lined rubber or PVC gloves should be worn when using such substances.

§ Some domestic substances, for example caustic soda and bleaching powders or liquids, can burn the skin. They may react dangerously with other substances and ought not to be mixed indiscriminately.

§ High humidity and heat can lead to heat exhaustion and heat stroke, which may be fatal. When working in these conditions it is advisable to drink at least 4.5 litres (8 pints) of cool (but not iced) water daily. It is best to take small quantities at frequent intervals. Extra salt is essential; this can be in the form of two salt tablets four times a day or level teaspoonful of table salt in plenty of water each morning and again in the evening, or added to food. Workplaces, especially the enclosed spaces are well ventilated.

§ In tropical areas especially, exposure to the sun during the hottest part of the day should be avoided as far as possible. When it is necessary to work in very strong sunlight, appropriate clothing offering protection to both head and body should be worn, whatever the degree of acclimatisation may be.

§ Where it is required to work exceptionally hot and/or humid conditions or when wearing respiratory equipment, it should be recognised that breaks at intervals in the fresh air or in the shade may be necessary.

§ Misuse of alcohol or drugs affects a person's fitness for duty and harms his health. The immediate after-effects may increase liability to accidents. Drinking alcohol whilst under treatment with prescribed drugs should be avoided, since even common remedies such as aspirin, tablets or codeine may be dangerous in conjunction with alcohol. Misuse of such items is strictly avoided in the factory premises.

§ As a general rule fresh fruit and salad should be thoroughly washed in fresh water before being eaten.

§ Breathing irritant dust can cause coughs and lung damage. Dust containing asbestos fibres is particularly hazardous since this can cause lung cancer and other serious lung diseases when inhaled. The risk is usually much greater for a person who smokes than for a non-smoker.

Substances Hazardous to Health


§ Many substances found in factories are capable of damaging the health of those exposed to them. They include not only substances displaying hazard warning labels (e.g. on dangerous goods, chemicals in stores) but also, for example, a range of dusts, fumes and fungal spores from goods, plant or activities in the factory.

§ Whenever the employees work in the presence of substances hazardous to health the employer or manager should ensure that any risks from exposure are assessed, and appropriate measures taken to prevent or control them. The assessment should include consideration of any necessary precautionary measures both for employees and other affected groups (e.g. stevedores and maintenance personnel). Failure to protect workers exposed to hazardous substances in this way could result in prosecution.

§ Employees are instructed, informed and trained so that they know and understand the risks arising from their work, the precautions to be taken and the results of any monitoring of exposure.

§ The health risk from a substance hazardous to health should be assessed by a competent person who should look at each hazard from each of the following view points : the identity, concentration, form and possible harmful effects of the hazardous substance, including any harmful products ; the likely exposure for the work in hand ; and the number of people (the workers and others) who will be in contact (they should be identified). The risks to the works and other persons should be considered separately for each area in the factory and each risk should be assessed individually. Where appropriate the risks to different categories of person should be considered separately.

§ A risk will normally conform to one or other of the following categories :

(a) Insignificant – no further action needed unless conditions change;

(b) Significant – immediate and long-term control measures needed;

(c) At Present Under Control – precautions needed to maintain control or to regain it if risk should later increase; or

(d) Uncertain or Unknown – degree of exposure or risk from exposure needs to be established, if necessary with the help of outside experts; meanwhile caution is required.

§ The assessment should be reviewed regularly and revised if there is a significant change of circumstances. A record should normally be kept of the assessment and of any measures taken. It is recommended that such records should be stored together to form a single database.

§ Prevention of the hazard by not having the substance is always better than control; but failing this control measures should achieve adequate control, be used, and be maintained in efficient order. When adequate control is not feasible by any other means, then as a means of last resort personal protective clothing and equipment should be provided and used instead.

§ For certain substances (e.g. where the risk to health is through inhalation) very specific control measures apply : for example, where the substance is asbestos dust or a dangerous gas or chemicals, or is in an enclosed space, where the risk is of a lower order, effective controls will often be the simplest however, e.g. awareness of the problem and an organised working method to reduce exposure.

§ In cases where failure of the control measures could result in serious risks to health, or where their adequacy or efficiency is in doubt, the exposure of the personnel are monitored and record kept for future reference.

Medical Inspection (MI) Room


Most of the units of DBL have their own M.I Room. There is a well equipped M.I Room in DBL Industrial Park with a qualified Medical Practitioner (MBBS Doctor) along with two Medical Assistants and two male Nurses (referred as Medial Helper) to render the following service.

§ Regular Health Check up

§ First Aid Treatment

§ Assessment of Physical status at the time of recruitment

§ Minor surgical treatment

§ Treatment of general diseases like fever, hepatitis, headache and other abdominal problems.

§ Counselling relating to :

- Hygiene

- Sanitation

- Family planning

- Immunisation

§ Proper inspection and identification of workers affected by infectious diseases like Chicken pox, Mumps, Measles and Cholera etc. treatment and isolation.
4.3 Medical & Hospitalisation Policy
4.3.1 Statutory Law

Statutory rules regarding health are being strictly observed in the factory as per Bangladesh Labour Law.

Health & Medical Benefits


Refer to HR Manual of DBL (Spec No. 10-201).

Other Health Facilities


§ In case of T.B, workers are provided with leave for a period of maximum nine months with pay.

§ Workers are allowed to reimburse all medical expenses incurred due to on job accident.

§ Managers and Officers are entitled to free medical for self and dependants.

§ Employees and Workers are also provided with a monthly Medical allowance.

Safety Equipment


Generally following safety equipment are used in case of an emergency :

General Safety Purpose


· First Aid Box

First Aid Box contains bandages, gauge, leucoplast, common medicines like savlon or dettol, paracetamol, burnol, orsaline, etc. These are used for first aid treatment in case of an emergency.

· Emergency Evacuation Plan

The Emergency Evacuation Plan shows the closest way out or the emergency exit doors to be used in case of an emergency.

· Emergency Alarm

In case of any accident, this alarm is used to seek help as soon as possible.

· Safety Shoes

Safety shoes are used while working outside the plant or open area

· Water Proof jacket & Umbrella

These are used while working outside the plant or open area

Electrocution Safety


· Crow bar

Crowbar is a long wooden or plastic piece, which is kept in every department to use it in case of electrocution.

Safety Against Fire


· Fire Extinguishers :

Three types of fire extinguisher are generally used at different units of DBL. All have similar type of operating procedure with slight variation. The operating procedure is printed on each extinguisher. All departments have some identified fire fighters who can be distinguished from others by their Fire badge. Help should be sought from them when needed.

· Fire Proof Jacket with Oxygen Inhaler

The fire fighters of some units under DBL are provided with the Fireproof Jacket with Oxygen Inhaler to ensure their safety while fire fighting.

· Central Fire Hydrant System

DBL have a central Fire Hydrant System, which can be used in case of emergency.

Safety Against Production Related Hazards


· Dust Musk

Musk is used to avoid inhaling dust particles, fluff, etc. generated during machine operation.

· Ear plugs and Ear Muffs

Earplugs / Earmuffs is used where too much sound generates from machine operation. It not only disturbs the concentration of the worker but also reduces his hearing ability if he continues to work in such place for long time without using earplugs / earmuffs.

· Hand Gloves

Proper hand gloves to be worn while mixing chemical or working in the hot area or any other process that may cause injury to the hands of the workers.

Safety For Workshop


· Hand Gloves

Different types of hand gloves are available, e.g. Fire proof, Acid proof, and Normal, Abrasion Proof. Proper hand gloves to be worn while working in an area that may cause injury to the hands of the workers.

· Safety Goggles or Eye Shield

Safety goggles and eye protective shields are provided to the workshop workers during welding works.

Safety Related to Maintenance


· Maintenance Sign

Maintenance Sign should be hanged while performing the maintenance tasks for the machine or equipment by the Maintenance department so that the floor personnel are notified and can be alert.

· Hot Work Permit

While performing any hot work, e.g. welding, etc., the performing department has to obtain the Hot Work Permit from the concerned department prior to the execution of their job.

Working Cloths


· Clothing should be chosen to minimise working risks.

· Working cloths should be close-fitting with no loose flaps, bulging pockets or ties, since injuries may result from clothing being caught up by moving parts of machinery or garments catching on obstructions or projections and causing falls. Clothing worn in galleys etc. where there is a risk of burning or scalding should adequately cover the body to minimise this risk and be of a material of low flammability such as cotton or a cotton/terylene mix. Clothes should be kept in good repair.

· Shirts or overalls provide better protection if they have long sleeves. Long sleeves should not be rolled up.

· Scarves, sweat rags and other neck wear, loose clothing, finger rings and jewellery can be hazards when working with machinery. Long hair should be covered.

· Loose dresses, bangles / bracelets, etc. that might get entangled with rotating parts should not be worn while working.

· Sandals and plimsolls are dangerous and should not be worn when working, since they offer little protection against accidental scalds or burns or falling objects and add to the risks or tripping and falling or slipping on ladders (as do old, worn out, down-at-heel shoes). The wearing of appropriate industrial or safety footwear, which can be of good appearance, is recommended.

· Gloves are a sensible precaution when handling sharp or hot objects but may easily be trapped on drum ends and in machinery. Whilst loose fitting gloves allow hands to slip out readily, they do not give a good grip on ladders. Wet or oily gloves may be slippery and great care should be taken when working in them.


Guidelines for First Aid Treatment

On-Site Medical Help


On site medical help is available in the factory. When needed inform the area In-charge or the production officer who will take the necessary steps.

Artificial Respiration or Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)


If a person has ceased to breathe, immediately treat the patient with CPR.




It can be as easy as A- B- C:

A - Airway



1. Place victim flat on his/her back on a hard surface.

2. Shake victim at the shoulders and shout "are you okay?"

3. If no response, call a doctor immediately (BTL Medical Inspection Room, Extension No. 128)

4. Head-tilt/chin-lift - open victims' airway by tilting their head back with one hand while lifting up their chin with your other hand.



B - Breathing

ZPosition your cheek close to victims' nose and mouth, look toward victims' chest, and

1. Look, listen, and feel for breathing (5-10 seconds)

2. If not breathing, pinch victim's nose closed and give 2 full breaths into victim's mouth (use your hand on the patient's mouth).

3. If breaths won't go in, reposition head and try again to give breaths. If still blocked, perform abdominal thrusts.



C - Circulation



1. Check for carotid pulse by feeling for 5-10 seconds at side of victims' neck.

2. If there is a pulse but victim is not breathing, give Rescue breathing at rate of 1 breath every 5 seconds or 12 breaths per minute

3. If there is no pulse, begin chest compressions as follows:

-Place heel of one hand on lower part of victim's sternum. With your other hand directly on top of first hand, Depress sternum 1.5 to 2 inches.

-Perform 15 compressions to every 2 breaths. (rate: 80-100 per minute)

-check for return of pulse every minute.



Note : Using your hand on the patient's mouth during CPR will protect you from coming into contact with the patient's saliva or blood in case the patient starts vomiting.

Choking


Conscious Victim

¨ If victim can cough, speak or breathe.. do not interfere.

¨ If victim can not cough, speak or breath, give abdominal thrusts until objects comes out.

Abdominal Thrust (for Conscious Victim)

1. Stand behind victim.

2. Wrap arms around victim's waist.

3. Make a fist with one hand and place the thumb against the victim's abdomen (below the breastbone and slightly above the navel)

4. Grasp your fist with the other hand.

5. Press into the victim's abdomen with quick upward thrusts. Thrusts should be distinct and delivered with intensity. No pressure should be exerted against the rib cage.

6. Repeat thrusts until object is expelled or victim becomes unconscious.

Unconscious Victim

¨ Open mouth and perform finger sweep.

¨ Open airway and try to ventilate.

¨ If unsuccessful, give up to five abdominal thrusts

Abdominal Thrust (for Unconscious Victim)

1. Straddle the victim's thighs and place heel of one hand in center of the abdomen (below the breastbone and above the navel)

2. Cover that hand with other hand and interlace fingers.

3. Without bending elbows, press the abdomen inward and upward rapidly five times.

4. Repeat sequence of finger sweep, ventilation and abdominal thrusts until successful or until advanced life support is available.

Bleeding


Direct pressure on and open, clean wound will usually control the bleeding. This can be done by pressure by the finger or hand, but if readily available use a sterile dressing with an adequate pad, and bandage firmly in position. A tourniquet should never be used. (First aid box available with the area in-charge should be used).

Poisoning


¨ If victim is unconscious try to discover what has been swallowed.

¨ Immediately call for medical help.

¨ Have the container or plant in your hand when you make the call.

¨ If a hospital trip is required, bring the container or plant, and a sample of the vomit with you. This will help doctors to prescribe the appropriate antidote.
4.5.6 Bone -Broken or Dislocated

Send for medical assistance at once and do not attempt to move the limb.

Burns

If a limb is affected take following measures:

¨ Cool the burn with water to stop the burning process.

¨ Do not apply fat, ointment or lotion.

¨ Do not break blisters or touch the burn.

¨ Remove garments and jewellery.

¨ Cover the burn with clean, dry and non-fluffy material. Do not use oil or adhesive dressing. Get medical aid as quickly as possible.

Electric Shock

Do not touch the victim if he is still in contact with the conductor. Free the victim by switching off or cutting off the lines with insulated handle apparatus. Alternatively, drag the victim by his clothes (if dry) or rope. Dry bamboo, wood, paper, blanket, hessian, rubber gloves or rubber shoes may be used.

If the patient is not breathing, do not take him to be dead but try the artificial respiration method described earlier. In the meantime send for a doctor. Never give an unconscious man a drink.

Shock

Serious burns or injury always cause shock. The patient is pale, his skin cold and clammy, his breathing quick and irregular and his pulse fast. He should be lying down with head low and hips and legs raised a little. Keep him warm and, if he is conscious, give him a warm sweet drink- but no stimulants. Keep him quiet and reassure him.
4.5.10 Foreign Bodies in the Eye

Lifting the upper eyelid over the lower will often bring the foreign body on to the lower lid from which it can be removed, or making the eye water by rubbing the other eye or blowing the nose will some time help. If the object is clearly visible the torn and moisturised edge of a soft paper can be used to remove it. Never use tweezers and never rub the injured eye, if the object appears to embed in the eyeball leave it for the doctor to remove.
4.5.11 Chemical Handling

Following are the first aid measures related with chemical handling

¨ After contact with the eyes :

Immediately rinse eyes with running water and seek medical advice

¨ After contact with the skin :

After contact with the skin, wash immediately with plenty of water and soap

¨ After inhalation :

Immediately seek fresh air after inhaling of dust, vapour or aerosol

¨ After ingestion or accident :

If swallowed seek medical advice immediately

General Safety Guidelines


Statutory Rules

All Installations shall be designed and operated to protect the health and safety of employees and the community. The following are recommended safety procedures and practices for the workplace:

a) Shield guards or guard railings should be installed at all belts, pulleys, gears and other moving parts.

b) Elevated platforms and walkways, and stairways and ramps should be equipped with handrails, toe boards and non-slip surfaces.

c) Electrical equipment should be grounded, well insulated and conform to application codes.

d) Personnel should use special footwear, masks and clothing for work in areas with high dust levels or contaminated with hazardous materials.

e) For work near molten or high temperature materials, employees should be provided with non-slip footwear, gloves, safety glasses, helmets, face protection, leggings and other necessary protective equipment.

f) Eye protector should be worn by personnel when in areas where there is a risk of flying chips or sparks, or where intense light is generated.

g) Personnel should wear protective clothing and goggles when in areas where corrosive, reactive, ignitable or toxic materials are stored or processed.

Note : A complete list of hazardous substances and threshold quantities that require a hazard assessment is included in the World Bank publication “Techniques for Assessing Industrial Hazards”- World Bank Technical paper Number 55, 1988; a major hazard assessment is also required for any process operating at a pressure greater than 50 bars, when the product of pressure (9n bars) and pressurised volume (in m3 exceeds 10,000).

h) Emergency eyewash and showers should be installed in areas containing corrosive materials.

i) A safety program should be established for construction and maintenance work.

j) A fire prevention and fire safety program should be implemented and include regular drills.

Machine and Area Related safety Guidelines

For area or machine specific safety guidelines refer to the area specific Standard Operating Procedures. (SOP).

Panel board

The trainers are responsible to show the electric panel board and instruct the trainees never to touch it and to maintain at least 3 feet distance from the board while working.

Electrical Wiring

The trainers are responsible to instruct the trainees to report to the Area In- charge if any naked electrical wiring is found

Aisles and Passage way

Permanent aisles way usually marked with yellow colour should be kept always free. The aisles and passageways are used as walk way for floor personnel and path for fork lifter.


Engr. Kh. Mashiur Rahman Email: garmentspedia@gmail.com

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