Practical Process of RMG Industry

What is Pollution Prevention & Hazards Control ?

Pollution Prevention


Pollution prevention programs should focus on reduction in water use and in more efficient use of process chemicals. Process changes might include the following:

  • Match process variables to type and weight of fabric (reduces wastes by 10 to 20 percent).
  • Use of transfer printing for synthetics (reduces water consumption from 250 to 270 litres per kg of material and also reduces dye consumption).
  • Use of pad batch- dyeing (saves up to 80 percent of energy requirements and 90 percent of water consumption, as well as reducing dye and salt usage).
  • Manage batches to minimise waste at the end of cycles.
  • Use less toxic dye carriers.
  • Control make-up chemicals.
  • Reuse dye solution from dye baths.
  • Reuse and recover process chemicals such as caustic (reduces chemical costs by 30 percent.)
  • Control the quantity of water used and temperature.
  • Use counter current rinsing. 
  • Improve cleaning ad housekeeping measures (reduces water usage to 150 m3/t of textiles produced or less.)
  • Recover heat from wash water (reduces steam consumption).

Pollution Reduction


Implementation of cleaner production processes and pollution prevention measures can provide both economic and environmental benefits. This can be achieved by implementing measures such as those detailed in the previous paragraph.

Major Concern


The major concern of the Health and Safety Policy lies with the following hazards which may affect the health of the workers / employees of the factory as well as the environment:

v Noise Pollution

v Dust Pollution

v Air Emissions

v Fire Hazards

v Mechanical Hazards

v Electrical Hazards

v Thermal Hazards

v Chemical Hazards

Noise Pollution

Definition

Noise is often defined as unwanted sound having loudness, which causes disturbance or annoyance to the hearer. It is wrong sound in the wrong place at the wrong time.
Statutory Rules

As per Article 3(b) of ILO convention No. 148, the term “noise” covers all sound, which can result in hearing impairment or be harmful to health or otherwise dangerous.

According to the World Bank guidelines, the maximum noise level is 90 dBA for Textile mills.

Ambient Noise

The impact of the noise from the operation of the facility is to be taken into consideration during the design and operation of the facility. Noise levels from the project’s operation, measured at noise receptors located outside the project property boundary, should not exceed the limits shown Causes & Consequences

Noise pollution may occur due to :

· Mechanical fault,

· Irregular or improper maintenance,

· Excessive vibration, etc.



The consequences of noise pollution can be :

· Disturbance or annoyance to the worker

· Hearing impairment (partial or full)

· Machine breakdown, etc.
Response to Noise Hazards

In case of any unfamiliar sound is detected, immediately the area in-charge and the maintenance personnel should be informed.
Preventive Measures

Feasible administrative and engineering controls, including sound insulated equipment and control rooms should be employed to reduce the average noise level in normal work areas. Plant equipment should be well maintained to minimise noise levels. Personnel must use hearing protection when exposed to noise levels above 85 dBA.

In view of the above, the following measures are taken under this policy :

a) The workers and employees working at different units of DBL Group are instructed to use Ear-Plugs and Ear-Muffs for protection against noise.

b) The Maintenance Department carries out regular maintenance of the Equipment to minimize the noise level.

c) The company conducts necessary study to measure the Noise level at least once in a year.

Dust Pollution


Definition

In spinning as well as textile mills, “fly” is considered as the most injurious dust. It is the small microscopic cotton particles generated during processing. This dust can be injurious to health if inhaled over a prolonged period.
Statutory Rules

According to the World Bank guidelines, for the mills processing cotton, flax or hemp, the Threshold Limit Values (TLV) of dust should be 1 mg/m3 or 1000m g/m3 and the plant should be designed for 500m g/m3.
Causes & Consequences

Dust pollution may occur due to :

· Improper house keeping,

· Mechanical fault of cleaning equipment, etc.


The consequences of dust pollution can be :

· Dust can be injurious to health if inhaled over a prolonged period,

· Product quality may deteriorate,

· Improper house keeping, etc.
Response to Dust Pollution

If excessive dust is detected at the workplace, immediately inform the area in-charge and the administration department.
Preventive Measures

In order to protect the workers / employees from the occupational hazards due to dust :

a) The workers & employees are instructed to use musk while working in the factory.

b) The company arranged medical supervision of workers / employees through the Medical Inspection Room.

c) The company conducts necessary study to measure the Dust level at least once in a year.

Asbestos Dust

· All types of asbestos have a fibrous structure and can produce harmful dust if the surface exposed to the air is damaged or disturbed. The danger is not immediately obvious because the fibers, which damage the lungs and can cause lung cancer, are too small to be seen with the naked eye. Asbestos, which is in good condition, is unlikely to release fibers, but where the material is damaged or deteriorating, or work is undertaken on it, airborne fibers can be released. Dry asbestos is much more likely to produce dust than asbestos that is thoroughly wet or oil-soaked. Asbestos is particularly likely to be present in old insulation and paneling. Certain asbestos compounds may also be found in some machinery components such as gaskets and brake linings.

· Employees are advised about the location where asbestos is known or believed to be present. The safety officers (admin personnel) keep a written record of this information and also note any other position where asbestos is suspected, but they should not probe or disturb any suspect substance. Employees who work regularly near asbestos or a substance likely to contain it are warned of the need for caution and are instructed to report any deterioration in its condition such as cracking or flaking.

· The condition of old asbestos may deteriorate and where reasonably practicable consideration is given to its removal. This is carried out to ensure the use of adequate protective procedures a specialist asbestos removal contractor is used.

· If it is essential to carry out emergency repairs liable to create asbestos dust in a factory, strict precautions, including the use of the appropriate protective clothing and respiratory protective equipment, are observed in accordance with the guidance given in the relevant Health & Safety Notice and other general guidance on the assessment and control of risks from hazardous substances code. 

Air Emissions


Definition

Air emissions include dust, oil mists, acid vapours, odours, and boiler exhausts. Cleaning and production changes result in sledges from tanks and spent process chemicals, which may contain toxic organic and metals.

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) emissions should be reduced by routing the extracted air form the solvent usage areas through the boiler system.

Statutory Rules

VOC emissions should be less than 140 kg/t of fabric.

Causes & Consequences

Air pollution may occur due to :

· Improper house keeping,

· Mechanical fault of cleaning equipment,

· Mechanical fault of other equipment, (e.g. Boiler)

· Breakage or Leakage or any other fault in Exhaust pipe or Exhaust fan,

· Improper Maintenance of Machinery and Equipment,

· Dust Pollution, etc.


The consequences of dust pollution can be :

· Health hazards to the employees,

· Environmental pollution,

· Non-conformity with the laid rules and regulation by World bank, GOB, and other statutory organisations, etc.

Response to Air Emission Fault

If any pollution or problem detected during air emission, immediately inform the Utilities department of the concerned unit of BTD.
2.3.5 Preventive Measures

Periodic monitoring (at least once a year) of workplace air quality is conducted for air contaminants relevant to employee tasks and the plants operations. Ventilation, air contaminant control equipment, protective respiratory equipment and air quality monitoring equipment are well maintained. Protective respiratory equipment are used by employees when the exposure levels for welding fumes, solvents other materials present in the workplace exceed local or internationally accepted standards, or threshold limit values (TLVs) as annually published. 

Fire Hazards


Definition

The possibility of fire hazard is present in a textile mill where fibers are processed and converted in to fabric. Fire incidents may take place anywhere in the factory particularly in Lay-in department, Dyeing & Finishing department or the stores.

Statutory Rules

Necessary facilities and benefits relating to fire hazards are provided to the workers and employees as per the rules and regulations laid down in the Factories Act, 1965 and Workmen's Compensation Act, 1923, under Labor Laws of Bangladesh.
Causes & Consequences

Fire incidents may occur due to:

· Mechanical fault(s),

· Electrical fault(s),

· Smoking within the restricted area(s),

· Improper handling of chemicals and other explosive materials,

· Improper house keeping,

· Hot work (e.g. welding, grinding, etc.).


The consequences of fire hazards depend upon the severity of fire incident. However some of the consequences can be enlisted as follows:

· Personal injury, death,

· Machine damage,

· Product and production loss,

· Disruption in smooth production run,

· Financial loss, etc.

Response to Fire Hazards

Response by the Fire Fighters:

· Lead the floor personnel to evacuate the area as soon as possible.

· Help the injured personnel (if any) to get out of the place.

· Switch off all power lines and electrical equipment, e.g. a/c, etc.

· Wet the surrounding area(s).

· Identify the cause/source of Fire

· Extinguish fire by proper fire-extinguishers

· If the fire goes out-of control, immediately call the nearest Fire Services for help.



Response by the Floor Personnel:

· Press the fire alarm.

· Inform the fire fighters as soon as fire is detected.

· Switch off the power line/machine/electrical equipment.

· Evacuate the area as soon as possible.

· Help the injured person to get out of the fire-affected area(s).

· Call a doctor/ambulance (if required) as soon as possible to treat the injured personnel.

Preventive Measures

Following measures are taken to prevent any fire hazards:

a) Smoking is strictly prohibited in the factory premises.

b) Electrical cables, wires and fire extinguishers are checked periodically

c) Arrangements are made for Fire proof doors, Fire hydrants and fire extinguishers (CO2 & ABC type)

d) Workers / employees are provided with adequate training on fire fighting, viz.

v use of fire extinguisher

v application of fire hydrants

v Use of Fireproof jackets and Oxygen inhaler, etc.

e) For any hot work (welding, grinding, etc.) within the factory which originates open flame and/or sparks, the following practices should be followed strictly.

v "Hot Work Permit" should be obtained from the relevant authority

v The work should be carried out in presence of the designated/trained fire fighters.

v The area should be prepared for the Hot Work and adequate fire fighting facilities should be made available near the work place.

Mechanical Hazards


Definition

Rotary machines and the parts like moving wheels or belts are responsible for most of the mechanical injuries at the work place. Possibilities of mechanical accidents are always there in a factory. This is unpredictable.

Statutory Rules

Necessary facilities and benefits relating to mechanical hazards are provided to the workers and employees as per the rules and regulations laid down in the Factories Act, 1965 and Workmen's Compensation Act, 1923, under Labor Laws of Bangladesh.

Causes & Consequences


Mechanical hazards may occur due to:

· Mechanical fault(s),

· Electrical fault(s),

· Non-conformance of safety rules and guidelines by the workers,

· Improper handling of machines and equipment,

· Improper maintenance, etc.


The consequences of mechanical hazards depend upon the severity of the incident. However some of the consequences can be enlisted as follows:

· Permanent partial disablement, death,

· Machine damage,

· Product and production loss,

· Disruption in smooth production run,

· Financial loss, etc.

Response to Mechanical Hazards

In case of any mechanical fault or hazard immediately call the mechanical maintenance personnel and inform the area in-charge. Refer to Section 4.4 for casualty treatment. Call a doctor/ambulance immediately if situation goes out of control.

Preventive Measures

a) Workers and employees are encouraged to use the following protective devices according to the nature of job:

v Putting on proper working clothes (avoiding loose dresses)

v Helmets for protection of head while working in the Workshop, under the overhead machines and in the high area.

v Goggles, eye shields for protection of eyes

v Aprons, armlets, gloves and safety boots for protection of arms & legs while working in workshop, sub-station, generator house, etc.

b) Proper Maintenance of each Machine is performed as per the Maintenance Schedule.

c) Machine should be electrically isolated before undertaking any maintenance work requiring maintenance personnel to enter into the machine. Appropriate caution board should be displayed on the electrical panel and on the machine.

Electrical Hazards


Definition

Accidents caused by the electric current are termed as the electrical hazards. Non-conformance of the safety guidelines and improper electrical maintenance are the main causes behind any electrical accident. 

Statutory Rules


Necessary facilities and benefits relating to electrical hazards are provided to the workers and employees as per the rules and regulations laid down in the Factories Act, 1965 and Workmen's Compensation Act, 1923, under Labor Laws of Bangladesh.

Causes & Consequences

Electrical hazards may occur due to :

· Electrical fault(s),

· Non-conformance of safety rules and guidelines by the workers,

· Exposed live wires,

· Improper maintenance, etc.


The consequences of electrical hazards depend upon the severity of the incident. However some of the consequences can be enlisted as follows :

· Permanent partial disablement, death,

· Machine breakdown,

· Product and production loss,

· Disruption in smooth production run,

· Fire hazards,

· Financial loss, etc
.
Response to Electrical Hazards

In case of any electrical fault or hazard immediately call the electrical maintenance personnel and inform the area in-charge. Refer to Section 4.4 for casualty treatment. Call a doctor/ambulance immediately if situation goes out of control.

Preventive Measures

In any manufacturing concern, there is always a possibility of electrical hazards. However, the possibility are reduced by ensuring the followings :

· Proper Maintenance as per PM Schedule.

· Frequent check of Panel boards, switch boards, fuses, etc.

· Immediate response against any electrical fault(s)

· Proper signs, labels, stickers are pasted/hanged where required.

· Necessary training are given to the Electrical Maintenance.


Thermal Hazards


Definition

Humidity, excessive heat, over exposure to steam, etc. are the causes behind thermal hazards. Non-conformance of the safety guidelines and improper maintenance also play a significant role behind such hazards.
Statutory Rules

Necessary facilities and benefits relating to thermal hazards are provided to the workers and employees as per the rules and regulations laid down in the Factories Act, 1965 and Workmen's Compensation Act, 1923, under Labor Laws of Bangladesh.

Causes & Consequences

Thermal hazards may occur due to :

· Mechanical fault(s),

· Non-conformance with the safety rules and guidelines,

· Improper maintenance,

· Excessive heat,

· Over exposure to Steam, etc.



The consequences of thermal hazards can be enlisted as follows :

· Health hazards. 

Response to Thermal Hazards

In case of any thermal hazard inform the area in-charge immediately. Refer to Section 4.4 for casualty treatment. Call a doctor/ambulance immediately if situation goes out of control.

Preventive Measures

To prevent the Thermal Hazards following measures are adopted:

· Proper Maintenance of machine and equipment.

· Educate the personnel regarding the Health & Safety guidelines


Chemical Hazards



Definition

Chemical hazards are the accidents and diseases caused by improper handling of corrosive chemicals. Mostly mishandling of chemicals causes various types of skin diseases; even it can result into partial loss of one or more organs, e.g. eyes, etc.

Statutory Rules

Chemicals which are explosive in nature must be kept away from heat. All chemicals should be stored, handled and used in accordance with good industrial hygiene practices and in conformity with legal regulations.

Causes & Consequences

Chemical hazards may occur due to :

· Mishandling of dyes & chemicals,

· Non-conformance of safety rules and guidelines,

· Improper housekeeping, etc.


The consequences of chemical hazards depend upon the severity of the incident. However some of the consequences can be enlisted as follows :

· Permanent partial injury, death,

· Product and production loss,

· Disruption in smooth production run,

· Financial loss, etc.

Response to Chemical Hazards

In case of chemical hazard inform the area in-charge immediately. Refer to Section 4.4 for casualty treatment. Call a doctor/ambulance immediately if situation goes out of control.

Preventive Measures

The floor personnel are instructed

· To take precautionary measures always while handling the chemicals and use eye protecting glasses, gloves, gum boots.

· Not to touch any unknown or unidentified chemicals.

· Not to inhale chemical dust or vapour.

· To avoid skin and eye contact.

The floor personnel are educated on different hazardous chemicals that are frequently used. Also, if a new chemical is being used, the safety measures and uses of that particular chemical are communicated immediately to the concerned floor personnel so that the user can take necessary precaution while handling the chemicals.

The following points summarises the key production and control practices that will lead to compliance with emission requirements:

§ Consider the use of transfer printing for synthetics.

§ Consider the use of pad batch-dyeing.

§ Control makeup of chemicals and match process variables to type and weight of fabric.

§ Recover and reuse process chemicals and dye solution.

§ Substitute less toxic dye carriers wherever possible.

§ Adopt counter current rinsing and improved cleaning and housekeeping.



Engr. Kh. Mashiur Rahman Email: garmentspedia@gmail.com

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